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    Chào mừng quý vị đến với WEBSITE CỦA THẦY GIÁO KHUẤT TRUNG THÀNH.

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    Người gửi: Khuất Trung Thành (trang riêng)
    Ngày gửi: 16h:37' 12-12-2008
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    Country profile: Vietnam
    
    
    
    Vietnam, a one-party communist state, has one of south-east Asia`s fastest-growing economies and has set its sights on becoming a developed nation by 2020.
    It became a unified country in 1976 after the armed forces of the communist north had seized the south of the country in the previous year.
    This followed three decades of bitter independence wars, which the communists fought first against the colonial power France, then against US-backed South Vietnam. In its latter stages, this conflict held the attention of the world.
    
    
    
    The US had entered hostilities to stem the "domino effect" of successive nations falling to communism.
    The jungle war produced heavy casualties on both sides, atrocities against civilians, and the indiscriminate destruction and contamination of much of the landscape.
    A visit to Vietnam by US President Bill Clinton in November 2000 was presented as the culmination of American efforts to normalise relations with the former enemy.
    
    Economic reform has challenged Communist Party ideology
    
    Vietnam struggled to find its feet after unification and it tried at first to organise the agriculture-based economy along strict collectivist lines.
    But elements of market forces and private enterprise were introduced from the late 1980s and a stock exchange opened in 2000.
    Foreign investment has grown and the US is Vietnam`s main trading partner. In the cities, the consumer market is fuelled by the appetite of a young, middle class for electronic and luxury goods. After 12 years of negotiations the country joined the World Trade Organization in January 2007.
    But the disparity in wealth between urban and rural Vietnam is wide and some Communist Party leaders worry that too much economic liberalisation will weaken their power base and introduce "decadent" ideas into Vietnamese society.
    Vietnam has been accused of suppressing political dissent and religious freedom. Rights groups have singled out Hanoi`s treatment of ethnic minority hill tribe people, collectively known as Montagnards.


    Country profile: Malaysia
    
    
    
    Malaysia boasts one of south-east Asia`s most vibrant economies, the fruit of decades of industrial growth and political stability.
    Its multi-ethnic, multi-religious society encompasses a majority Muslim population in most of its states and an economically-powerful Chinese community.

    Consisting of two regions separated by some 640 miles of the South China Sea, Malaysia is a federation of 13 states and three federal territories.
    It is one of the region`s key tourist destinations, offering excellent beaches and brilliant scenery. Dense rainforests in the eastern states of Sarawak and Sabah, on the island of Borneo, are a refuge for wildlife and tribal traditions.
    
    Malaysia made the transformation from a farm-based economy
    
    Ethnic Malays comprise some 60% of the population. Chinese constitute around 26%; Indians and indigenous peoples make up the rest. The communities coexist in relative harmony, although there is little racial interaction.
    Although since 1971 Malays have benefited from positive discrimination in business, education and the civil service, ethnic Chinese continue to hold economic power and are the wealthiest community. The Malays remain the dominant group in politics while the Indians are among the poorest.
    Malaysia`s economic prospects remain healthy, although it faces fierce competition from its neighbours, and from China and India.
    Free trade talks were opened with the US, but the US has said it will not be able to conclude a deal in 2007 as the two sides failed to meet a deadline to secure a deal before President George W Bush`s fast-track trade authority expired in June.
    The country is among the world`s biggest producers of computer disk drives, palm oil, rubber and timber. It has a state-controlled car maker, Proton, and tourism has considerable room for expansion.
    But it also faces serious challenges - politically, in the form of sustaining stability in the face of religious differences and the ethnic wealth gap, and, environmentally, in preserving its valuable forests.
    Malaysia`s human rights record has come in for international criticism. Internal security laws allow suspects to be detained without charge or trial.
    
    
    

    Country profile: Singapore
    
    
    
    Singapore is south-east Asia`s hi-tech, wealthy city-state which is also known for the conservatism of its leaders and its strict social controls.
    The country comprises the main island - linked by a causeway and a bridge to the southern tip of Malaysia - and around 50 smaller islands.
    Once a colonial outpost of Britain, Singapore has become one of the world`s most prosperous places - with glittering skyscrapers and a thriving port.

    Most of its people live in public-housing tower blocks. They enjoy one of the world`s highest standards of living, but also a system of punishments for acts deemed to be anti-social.
    
    Britain`s Sir Stamford Raffles saw Singapore`s commercial potential
    
    Government-led initiatives have encouraged Singaporeans to have more babies and to be more courteous. Citizens are urged to "Speak Good English" in place of a local slang known as "Singlish".
    Chinese make up more than 75% of the community; Malays and Indians
     
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